Forms of Trafficking

Internal trafficking

The recruitment, transfer and exploitation of a victim occurring within the same country. It is the commercialization of human beings destined to fulfill given demands within a national territory.

International trafficking

This form implies the crossing of borders. The recruitment occurs in one country (the country of origin of the victim) and the exploitation occurs in another country (or countries). In certain cases, the transportation implies the passing through various countries.

Mixed trafficking

It combines the internal and international forms. It takes place when the trafficking begins as an internal form and later becomes international with the crossing of at least one border.

Methods most often used for the capture of victims

Employment agencies:

They claim to have links with people outside the country and to handle contracts within the country of origin. Once recruited, the victims perform domestic work, artistic work or become traveling companions, amongst others, without any guarantees or benefits. After arrival in the destination country, the original offer is not fulfilled.

Seduction:

Certain men are dedicated to seducing the victims, making them fall in love and promising them a better life abroad. Once the victim has accepted, she is deceived and forced to prostitute herself.

Marriage:

A similar mechanism exists where the trafficker presents himself before the victim as a potential husband. The trafficker then proposes marriage to the victim who, before or after the wedding, is brought to the country where the "husband" resides. In this country, the victim is denied contact with her family and friends and her documents are taken away.

Illegal adoption:

Refers to situations where the necessary legal requirements for adoption have not been completed or where one or more of these requirements has been fraudulently produced.

Given legislations with longer, more complex processes for adoption, many people have resorted to falsified documents to appear as the true parents of the minor they wish to adopt. There also exist extremely well organized mafias dedicated to this activity, in which you can find health professionals (doctors, obstetricians), lawyers and even corrupt civil servants.

Godfathering:

This modality of recruitment is oriented towards satisfying the demand for domestic work in urban areas. Minors are introduced through their family to someone they know or to a distant family member with whom the victim has some relationship (godfather, godmother) so that they may receive a better education or better development opportunities. In exchange for this opportunity, the minor would be expected to help with the domestic work of the family receiving them (kitchen work, cleaning, babysitting). However, in many cases, this situation turns into labor exploitation as the victim cannot study, receives no pay, loses contact with family and endures long days of work. In many other cases, this situation even turns into a case of sexual exploitation due to the vulnerability of the victim.

Internet:

Due to the emergence of new information and communication technologies, mafias dedicated to trafficking have come across a virtually limitless space where they can employ all the methods described above. There are countless Web pages fronting as marital agencies, employment agencies, and adoption agencies looking to attract victims. In addition to these websites, there have even been chat rooms and blogs that have sprung up as traps used by criminals to lure potential victims by means of a variety of fraudulent methods oriented to gain their confidence.

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